Beroepsinstituut van Vastgoedmakelaars v Van Leuken - professional qualifications must be recognised across EU member states - ECJ Case C197/06 - 17.4.08
Mr Van Leuken was an estate agent established in Holland. He specialised in selling Belgian properties to Dutch clients. The Belgian authorities claimed that he was unlawfully conducting business as an estate agent in Belgium; he could become authorised in Belgium but only after taking an aptitude test in 9 legal subjects. Mr Van Leuken refused, and instead made agency arrangements with a Belgian estate agent to conduct this side of his business. When the Belgian authorties further challenged this the matter was referred to the ECJ.